Where these were not ploughed/incorporated into the soil during land preparation, during transplanting: Manure should be applied at 5 kg/ 1.2 m2 or 9 planting holes at 60 by 60 cm. The manure and fertilizer should be well mixed with the soil before placing the seedlings.
Fertilizers: Add 400 kg/Ha SSP (21% P2O5) or 14g/planting hole; or 200 Kg DSP or DAP or 7g/planting hole. Top dress with 100 Kg/ha of CAN (26% N) or 3-4 g/ plant when the seedlings are 25 cm high or 2-3 weeks after transplanting. Add another 200kg/ha of CAN or 7-8 g/plant 6 weeks after transplanting as the first flowers start appearing.
Apply enough water to recharge the rooting zone. In greenhouses drip irrigation is used and plants utilize 300 to 500 ml/plant/ day depending on the weather conditions or where the crop is grown.
Pinch the side shoots to leave one or two main stems. Continuously remove the side shoots and any leaves that may be touching the soils.
In the field use strong (1 -1.5-inch-thick) supporting sticks about 2 m high which will be used to train the plant or build a support structure with poles onto which wires a weaved and used to support the plants. When the plants produce 6-8 flowers, the growth point of the plant should be pinched to allow the fruits to grow into good size. In greenhouses, the hybrids are indeterminate hence will need a well erected supporting structure that will withstand the weight of the plant and its produce.
This should be done regularly to avoid competition or act as hosts of pests and diseases.
This is done to control soil temperature, conserve water, reduce weed pressure and to control pests such as mites which thrive in dry and dust areas, thrips and leaf miners that pupate in the soil.
Tomato is prone to many pests and diseases that reduce the yield if not managed well. Integrated pest management offers an option where pesticide applications are reduced substantially. Hence the need to have some form of monitoring by use of traps yellow, blue and walking in the field or greenhouse to observe how the plants are doing.
- Common pests and diseases:
- Late blight, early blight, Fusarium wilt, Bacteria wilt, Bacteria canker, Root knot nematodes, viruses
- Arthropods: Mites, whitefly, American leaf miner (Tuta), Bollworm, aphids, thrips and vegetable leaf miner